Male Genes Involved in Recurrent Miscarriage

The chromosome study and paternal age are also factors to take into consideration when these types of problems occur.

Factor masculino_GinemedRecurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), or recurrent miscarriage, is three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before week 20 of gestation, with a fetus weighing ≤ 500 g.

Though many factors can play a role in RPL and the causes are sometimes unexplained, it makes sense to individualise each case and take into account the female’s age, the circumstances surrounding her early pregnancy losses, family history and the couple’s level of anxiety. On the other hand, genetic causes represent around 50% of cases.

The spermatozoid contributes 50% of the genetic material; thus, it is reasonable to ask ourselves whether genetic abnormalities in the sperm may have an impact on the development or loss of the embryo.

Study of the male factor has been based on the sperm analysis for years, and although this analysis is necessary, it is not enough. The chromosome study and paternal age, among other factors, must also be taken into consideration with these types of problems.

Spermatogenesis is the mechanism in charge of sperm production which begins functioning during adolescence and continues throughout the male’s lifetime.

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Posted in Assisted Reproduction, Fertility, Gynaecology

Is it okay to be sexually active while undergoing assisted reproduction treatment?

smile-2607299Being sexually active while undergoing ART decreases sperm DNA fragmentation and improves Mother-to-Embryo immune tolerance.

Generally speaking, specialists in reproductive medicine have customarily recommended that patients beginning a cycle of assisted human reproduction refrain from sexual activity while in treatment; this is the same as the guideline for men undergoing a sperm analysis – a test for which the male should have an abstinence of 2-5 days, as this allows us to ensure that the parameters obtained are comparable in different situations.

However, scientific evidence has shed light on this area of expertise, bringing about substantial change with the help of current data that has disproved this preconceived idea.

In this regard, recent scientific publications have demonstrated the benefits of ejaculating several times during the days prior to leaving the sperm sample for the laboratory. This is due to the fact that these ejaculations decrease the fragmentation of sperm DNA, thus guaranteeing that the spermatozoids obtained will have higher quality. Additionally, it is best for the male to have the final ejaculation as close as possible to the time of providing the sample for oocyte fertilisation in the laboratory.

Nevertheless, we must keep in mind that having several ejaculations means that we will obtain a lower volume of ejaculate and fewer spermatozoids. Therefore, for patients with severe oligospermia (less than 2 millon/ml) or hypospermia (less than 1.5 ml), the recommendation is to leave a sperm sample to be frozen, in advance, which could then be used in the event that there are no spermatozoids in the fresh sample provided on fertilisation day. Read more ›

Posted in Assisted Reproduction, Fertility

PGD reduces the number of transfers needed to achieve a pregnancy

This method for embryo selection reduces the number of transfers needed to have a healthy baby, and it also significantly decreases the likelihood of miscarrying.

DGPIt is a well-known fact that maternal age plays a role in reproduction. We are all aware that between the ages of 25 and 35 female reproductive capacity declines by up to 50%.  After this age, a female may have difficulty conceiving or may be more likely to spontaneously miscarry. The good news is that science is progressing in terms of prevention: reproductive medicine offers us a solution thanks to the information we obtain from the DNA of our embryos through Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD).

When this type of technique is used in assisted reproduction, it is possible to genetically analyse embryos to determine which ones are carriers of chromosome abnormalities or monogenic disorders. In a Pre‑Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD), the embryos are studied in order to transfer those which are unaffected and to ensure that the baby will be free of the condition being studied.

In this regard, we study the DNA of the embryos and select those which are free of chromosome abnormalities. This allows us to increase the likelihood of pregnancy and, at the same time, decrease the likelihood of implantation failure, spontaneous miscarriage and/or therapeutic abortion. Slots with bonus rounds are a very cool addition to your favorite games. Developers always come up with something new for their players. Slots with bonus rounds help to distract from the usual picture and plunge into a whole new world of fabulous gambling.
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The importance of Vitamin D in Reproduction Treatment

Recent studies indicate that women with high levels of Vitamin D will have greater chances of having children.

Vitamina DOptimal nutritional status in women during the preconception phase and adequate intake of all essential nutrients are both very important when it comes to boosting fertility as well as in the evolution of a pregnancy.

Among these nutrients, we would particularly like to mention the role played by Vitamin D for two reasons:  there is growing evidence concerning its implication in male and female fertility, and there is also a high prevalence of low Vitamin D levels in women trying to get pregnant or women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment.

We can obtain Vitamin D by consuming foods that are a source of this vitamin: dairy products, oily fish, egg yolks, etc.; or by synthesising it in our skin after exposure to sunlight (UVB). It is estimated that 50% of the general population is at-risk for low levels of Vitamin D, especially in cases of inadequate Vitamin D intake, poor intestinal absorption, medication intake or insufficient exposure to sunlight.

Vitamin D is essential to bone metabolism and to the absorption of Calcium and Phosphorus in the intestines, but this vitamin also affects different organs, including anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects on the pancreas, the brain, the cardiovascular system and the reproductive system.

There are studies that indicate a link between Vitamin D and the quality of eggs and embryos. However, the explanation that is most strongly supported by science is the one that associates this micronutrient with the immune processes in embryo implantation. Read more ›

Posted in Assisted Reproduction, Fertility

6 FAQs while waiting for your Beta-hCG result

Although we can’t speed up the clock, it is in our power to resolve any doubts you have during this period of time.

Test embarazoWaiting for your Beta-hCG result is the last step in Assisted Reproduction Treatment. It is a period of 12-15 days during which the patient can experience anxiety, doubts and uncertainties while waiting for her beta-hCG test results.

Implantation is a delicate process that is out of our control. For this reason, and because we cannot reduce the wait time, we can offer you quality medical information to resolve all your doubts and uncertainties and reduce your levels of stress and anxiety. That way, you will feel more calm and relaxed while you wait for your results and will understand what is occurring at each moment.

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Here we have compiled a list of the 6 most frequently asked questions that our patients have while waiting for their Beta-hCG results:

When I use the vaginal pessaries I don’t think the medication is being properly absorbed.

As long as the pessary remains in the vagina for about 20 minutes it will dissolve and properly absorb. If the remainder of the pessary comes out, it is usually the capsule that contains the medication or oil that is used as a medium for dissolving certain medications that cannot be dissolved in water. We recommend inserting the pessary at night right before bed or, if it’s during the day, we suggest using panty liners or sanitary napkins to prevent unwanted stains.

How should I administer the progesterone pessaries?  Oral or vaginal administration?

Both administration routes are valid. We normally recommend using the pessaries vaginally so as to avoid the effects of the first step (passing through the liver). When it is used vaginally, the pessary is more effective as it is better absorbed. Furthermore, oral administration tends to result in symptoms such as nausea, dizziness and drowsiness. Read more ›

Posted in Assisted Reproduction, Fertility

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Melatonin and Sperm Quality

Recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of melatonin on the reproductive organs when assisted reproduction techniques are used.

Melatonin is a natural compound produced by a small structure in the brain – the pineal gland, also known as the epiphysis cerebri- found in the centre of the brain. This endocrine gland serves a unique and interesting purpose: it naturally converts the information we receive about environmental light and is the main control centre of our biological rhythms.

From the time we are three months old melatonin is circulating in our bodies. Melatonin circulation increases as daylight starts to disappear, making it the true “hormone of darkness”. Its rise each night “opens the doors to falling asleep” and, throughout life, levels decrease. This fall in melatonin levels is associated with insomnia and a higher prevalence of cancer.

Thus, melatonin is capable of coordinating and regulating the body’s biological rhythms; it is also a powerful antioxidant and an excellent natural protector of cells.

Melatonina_nuecesAerobic organisms, those which utilise oxygen in their metabolism, are constantly exposed to oxidative stress (OS). OS occurs when the generation of free radicals exceeds the capacity of natural antioxidants to eliminate them, thus affecting the integrity of DNA. Free radicals are produced during normal cellular metabolism and in some situations such as exposure to ionising radiation, ultraviolet rays, environmental contamination, tobacco consumption, etc.

Semen contains antioxidants which protect germ cells from environmental oxidative danger.  However, antioxidants are eliminated with the use of assisted reproduction techniques (ART), thus leaving the spermatozoids vulnerable to oxidative damage. Read more ›

Posted in Assisted Reproduction, Fertility

What tests are ordered in a Basic Fertility Study?

The purpose of these tests is to diagnose the most common fertility problems.

In a Basic Fertility Study we need to know if ovulation is occurring, if the fallopian tubes are permeable and if there are an acceptable number of motile spermatozoids. Additionally, we must evaluate ovarian reserve if the female is over the age of 35, or in women under the age of 35 if we suspect poor ovarian response. For women who have irregular cycles we will also need to evaluate their basal gonadotropin levels (FSH and LH), as well as prolactin and progesterone during the second phase of their menstrual cycle (days 20-22).

ICSI GINEMEDPatients with infertility do not present a greater number of thyroid conditions than the general population, meaning a thyroid function study will only be performed if a thyroid disorder or abnormal menstrual cycles are suspected, or in women who do not ovulate.

To evaluate ovulation we must test the female’s level of progesterone between days 20-22 of her cycle, or a few days later in women who have longer cycles. Read more ›

Posted in Assisted Reproduction, Fertility

What causes poor ovarian response and how is it treated?

Poor response to ovarian stimulation is one of the major challenges assisted reproduction specialists must deal with.

There are no established criteria for defining a poor response. In fact, it was not until 2010 that the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology reached a consensus on its definition. It was determined that in order to confirm a poor response, at least 2 of the following criteria must be met:

  • Age ≥ 40 years or any other risk factor for poor response (presence of endometriosis, absence of one ovary, etc.).
  • A previous cycle with ≤ 3 oocytes retrieved using a standard stimulation protocol.
  • Abnormal ovarian reserve test results (antral follicle count less than 5-7, Anti-Müllerian Hormone less than 0.5 – 1.1 ng/ml).

Normally, poor response to stimulation is the result of diminished ovarian reserve, which is in turn due to a lower number of follicles able to be stimulated using ovarian stimulation medication.

Recently, other factors which may be involved in poor response have been studied, such as a hypoandrogenic state (low levels of androgens) or a decrease/malfunction of follicle-stimulating hormone receptors (the hormone which stimulates follicle growth).

ovulosIn regards to treatment for poor ovarian response, there are no widely accepted recommendations. Increasing the dose of gonadotropins (medication used for ovarian stimulation) has not shown, above certain levels, to improve the number of oocytes obtained.

One way of increasing ovarian androgens is to administer a medication we call aromatase inhibitors; these inhibitors prevent androgens from converting into oestrogens, in turn increasing the level of androgens. Nonetheless, recent studies have not proven this inhibitor to be effective in terms of live birth rates.

The other way to boost androgen levels in the ovaries is to use medications with LH activity during ovarian stimulation.  This LH activity may improve a poor response, though there is currently not enough evidence to show that the use of this type of medication improves pregnancy rates in patients with poor ovarian response in cycles of IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation). Read more ›

Posted in Assisted Reproduction, Fertility

New research on male infertility: Fertile Chip – What does it really entail?

Male factor infertility is -increasingly- being addressed in important studies and scientific publications. And although the most basic test in the study of infertility is the semen analysis, when additional information is needed we can turn to more specific tests such as the sperm DNA Fragmentation analysis, sperm FISH analysis, karyotyping and cystic fibrosis studies.

As regards sperm DNA Fragmentation, up until now this analysis examined the fragmentation of single-stranded DNA in spermatozoids.


What does this mean?

DNA is located in the nucleus of the sperm cell and contains the chromosomes and all genetic information which the male will pass on to his offspring. This genetic information is stored in a compact form in the nucleus, but if it were ‘decompacted’ it would consist of two parallel strands that can connect together. These strands are the instructions for the identity of offspring.

As we mentioned before, up until now single-stranded fragmentation studies were performed and techniques were used to process the samples and eliminate this fragmentation. At present, however, studies are being carried out not only on single-stranded fragmentation, but also on double-stranded fragmentation. It appears as though repairing this fragmentation is not so simple when both strands of DNA are damaged, thus affecting the rate of development of both the embryo and the pregnancy.

Therefore, advances are being made in techniques for the elimination of sperm with double-stranded fragmentation in samples to be used for ICSI. Read more ›

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